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Atrophy in Thalamus Linked to More Severe Non-motor Problems in Parkinson’s Patients

brain regions

People with severe non-motor symptoms related to Parkinson’s disease (PD) have a smaller thalamus compared to those with similar but mild to moderate symptoms, a brain imaging study suggests.

Sleeping and gastrointestinal problems are also tied to atrophy (shrinking) of the thalamus, a part of the inner brain known to process motor signals and to regulate consciousness, alertness, and sleep.

The study, “Sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal dysfunction are associated with thalamic atrophy in Parkinson’s disease,” was published in the journal BMC Neuroscience

Parkinson’s is marked by a progressive loss of coordination and movement. In addition to difficulties in movement (motor symptoms), it can cause a variety of non-motor symptoms such as sleep problems, depression, gastrointestinal and urinary problems, and difficulty thinking (cognitive impairment).

Techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) help to diagnose PD through brain scans, and they can also help identify structural changes in the brain — like changes in thickness or volume — associated with its non-motor symptoms.

But the exact location of specific brain areas linked to non-motor symptoms is still unclear. 

Researchers recruited 41 patients diagnosed with idiopathic (unknown origin) PD at the Movement Disorders clinics at King’s College Hospital in London. All were analyzed through MRI brain scans.

None of these patients chosen showed signs of mild PD cognitive impairments or disease-related dementia, and they had no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders.

Patients were first assessed by medical staff using the Non-motor Symptoms Scale for PD (NMSS), then self-assessed using the Non-motor Symptoms Questionnaire (NMSQ). The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms.

Motor symptoms stages were determined with the Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) scale, general cognitive status was assessed using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and quality of life (QoL) was measured by patients completing the 39-item PD Questionnaire (PDQ-39).

All were required to stop taking dopamine-related medications the night before the scans to avoid involuntary movements caused by side effects. 

Patients were then divided into two groups based on their NMSS scores. A total of 23 patients who scored 40 or below were considered to have mild to moderate non-motor Parkinson’s symptoms, while 18 who scored 41 or above were defined as severe. 

Results showed that, compared to those with mild to moderate symptoms, those with severe non-motor symptoms were older, had the disease longer, were using higher doses of medication, had higher H&Y scores, and reported a lower QoL. Severe non-motor PD patients also scored more poorly in the sleep and fatigue sections of the NMSS. 

MRI scans were taken, and the cortical (outer brain) thickness and subcortical (inner brain) volumes were calculated and compared with patient assessments.

Analyses revealed that the inner brain’s thalamus was significantly smaller in volume (thalamic atrophy) in PD patients with severe non-motor symptoms, compared to those with mild to moderate symptoms. 

Other areas of the inner brain, including the hippocampus, the amygdala, were similar between the two groups. No differences in the thickness of the outer brain were seen. 

Researchers then divided patients into two groups based on sleep/fatigue problems and gastrointestinal tract dysfunction. Compared to those without these problems, a smaller thalamus was significantly associated with sleep and gastrointestinal disturbances. 

“This is the first study showing an association between higher non-motor symptom burden and thalamic atrophy in PD. Among the non-motor symptoms, sleep/fatigue disturbances and gastrointestinal dysfunction were the non-motor symptoms that drove this correlation,” the researchers wrote.

The team, however, noted that further studies with larger numbers of PD patients are needed to confirm these findings, and use specific scales to measure nighttime and daytime sleep problems and tools that capture gastrointestinal dysfunction.

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Diastolic Blood Pressure May Be Lower in Fatigued Parkinson’s Patients, Study Suggests

low diastolic blood pressure

Fatigue in Parkinson’s disease may be a clinical manifestation of low diastolic blood pressure — the second number presented in a BP measure, according to recent research.

The study, “Fatigue in Parkinson’s Disease Associates with Lower Ambulatory Diastolic Blood Pressure,” was published in the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease.

Lack of energy (fatigue) is one of the most common — and most disabling — symptoms among people with Parkinson’s, and has a significant impact on patients’ quality of life. However, the biological mechanisms underlying fatigue are poorly understood.

Low blood pressure, also known as hypotension, and overall blood pressure variability are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD). But scientists still have not fully connected such physiological changes with other non-motor symptoms of this neurodegenerative disorder.

Researchers at the University of Michigan now sought to investigate the differences in 24-hour blood pressure measurements in Parkinson’s patients with and without fatigue.

A total 35 participants had their diastolic and systolic blood pressure monitored hourly for a day in their home environment. Systolic blood pressure, or SBP, which is the top number presented on a blood pressure monitor, measures the pressure in the blood vessels when the heart beats. Diastolic blood pressure, or DBP, the second number presented, measures blood vessel pressure when the heart rests between beats. The researchers said DBP may better reflect the type of autonomic dysfunction that is common in Parkinson’s.

Fatigue was assessed using the Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) part I. Based on their test results, participants were considered either fatigued — 11 subjects; mean age of 71.2 years — or non-fatigued — 24 subjects; mean age of 68.4 years. Fatigued patients had a lower mean diastolic blood pressure than those without fatigue (67.8±4.8 vs. 75.6±9.4 mmHg). These differences were more prominent in the morning.

“It is possible that fatigue symptoms themselves do not wax and wane throughout the day with hypotension but rather are a correlate of a tendency towards low vascular tone in general,” the researchers said.

No differences were found in the participants’ autonomic symptoms or on an office-based diastolic and systolic blood pressure assessment performed on the day of 24-hour monitor initiation.

“This is a novel finding that we hope may open the door for new, currently untapped ways to treat fatigue symptoms in PD,” Vikas Kotagal, MD, MS, of the department of neurology at the University of Michigan and Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Health System (VAAAHS) and Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC), said in a press release.

“We hope these results will help move us towards better treatments for PD fatigue,” added Kotagal, the study’s first author. “If we can design and test treatments that increase DBP [diastolic blood pressure] without worsening the harmful cardiovascular effects of high systolic blood pressure (SBP), we may be able improve fatigue symptoms in PD. Our data may also have implications on the off-target side effects of some classes of antihypertensive medications when used by patients with PD and fatigue.”

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How Did Life Get Crazy Busy? I’m Overwhelmed!

Dr. C's

I thought that when I retired, I would have more time, not less. How did life get so busy? There are not enough hours in the week to finish all the things I want to. If I push myself harder and longer, then I get fatigued and overwhelmed, but then I need more rest, which results in less time. That thwarts the desired outcome.

I have a long to-do list, and I feel oppressed just looking at it, particularly when I am already worn out. I have been fighting this battle for the past five years, and there are a few things that make it a little easier for me.

To give you some idea of what my seven-day week looks like, here is my to-do list, with the average number of hours spent on each task:

Table of tasks and hours

A seven-day week has 168 available hours. I am already overbooked, and I haven’t included several projects that are on my waiting-to-do list. These include finishing/publishing three manuscripts, finishing/publishing my graphic novel, and a blog that hasn’t had a new post in over a year.

There is “Santa,” an important part of my identity, which will consume most of my time in December. Finally, there are requests for my professional services, such as a paper or a presentation. When these requests come in, something on the above list must change, and it can be too much.

The emotional confusion of being overwhelmed puts a halt to effective project engagement. The way out of being so damn busy and feeling weighed down is to put into place some form of a time management system. The first thing is to realize how much time your chronic disease consumes each week. There are lots of ways this happens, and flexibility is crucial to coping.

The second thing is to set aside the time needed for things that add to your well-being, like sleep, exercise, meals, and family. If you are like me, with lots of irons in the fire, you have a full list of things that require your time. It comes down to making choices, setting priorities. Sometimes, we have to say no to people.

Time is a resource that can be thought of like money. There is a limited “time budget” to spend, and I want to allocate that time in the best way possible in order to get the most out of this life with a chronic disease. I spend time in concentrated blocks of three to four hours. This helps to avoid distractions. Also, these blocks can be reallocated when something unexpected comes up — something always does!

Delegation, when appropriate, is a good time-management strategy. My partner has taken on the email, social networking, and the appointment calendar, which frees up time.

There are resources to help with time management skills. Here are a few:
1. A time management skills book that looks at multiple life demands on our time
2. A 30-minute audiobook talk with clear tips on time management
3. A TED Talk on time management
4. Columnists who offer time-management tips and time-management apps

What issues do you face with not having enough time in the week to get everything done?

***

Note: Parkinson’s News Today is strictly a news and information website about the disease. It does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or another qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website. The opinions expressed in this column are not those of Parkinson’s News Today or its parent company, BioNews Services, and are intended to spark discussion about issues pertaining to Parkinson’s disease.

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Fatigue Linked to Specific Patterns of Brain Degeneration in Parkinson’s Patients, Study Reports

fatigue, brain degeneration

In Parkinson’s disease patients, fatigue is linked to specific patterns of brain degeneration that are not present in individuals of the same age who do not have the condition, a study reports.

Findings of the study, “Structural brain correlates of fatigue in older adults with and without Parkinson’s disease,” were published in the journal NeuroImage: Clinical.

Previous research has shown that more than half of patients with Parkinson’s disease are affected by fatigue, which is one of the most common non-motor symptoms of the disorder and is also frequently found among older individuals without the disease. However, the reason why fatigue is so prevalent among older adults and whether it is linked to Parkinson’s is still unclear.

Because Parkinson’s disease is associated with structural changes in the brain, a group of researchers from the University of Colorado School of Medicine and collaborators set out to investigate if fatigue could be linked to alterations in the brains of Parkinson’s patients, compared with older individuals without the disease.

To study this, the team used a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) — a technique that measures the diffusion of water molecules in the brain to evaluate white matter integrity — to assess gray and white matter integrity.

Gray matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (brain, brainstem, and cerebellum) made up of neuron cell bodies, whereas white matter refers to areas of the central nervous system made up of myelinated nerve segments (axons) responsible for the transmission of nerve signals and that connect various gray matter areas.

The study involved a total of 60 patients with Parkinson’s — 17 women and 43 men with an average age of 67.58 years and mean disease duration of 5.67 years — and 41 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals used as controls.

Brain imaging data showed that Parkinson’s patients had a significant loss of gray matter volume in the brain’s striatum, a region involved in motor control, and the insula, a region involved in consciousness, emotion and motor control. The reduction in gray matter volume in the brain’s striatum was even more pronounced among patients who were also affected by fatigue.

No significant differences in brain structure were found between healthy controls with and without fatigue. Likewise, no significant differences were found on fractional anisotropy between those with or without fatigue from both groups. Fractional anisotropy reflects the diffusion of a liquid within white matter nerve tracts that connect gray matter areas.

“Fatigue in PD [Parkinson’s disease] is associated with unique [brain] structural changes, … suggesting fatigue in PD is primarily related to PD pathology [disease development], particularly in the dorsal striatum, and not simply a consequence of aging,” the researchers wrote.

“These results suggest that PD-related fatigue is a neurobiologically distinct syndrome and that further research is merited to better understand its phenomenology and pathophysiology with the goal of developing better treatments for this common and debilitating symptom,” they added.

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Most Untreated Parkinson’s Patients Have Non-Motor Symptoms, Study Shows

non-motor symptoms

Non-motor symptoms are common among patients with Parkinson’s disease who have not yet received any treatment, and the type of symptoms differs between men and women and onset age groups, a study shows.

The study, “Gender and onset age related-differences of non-motor symptoms and quality of life in drug-naïve Parkinson’s disease,” was published in the journal Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery.

Parkinson’s disease is mostly recognized by its motor symptoms, such as tremor and postural instability. Several non-motor symptoms, including sleep disorders, neuropsychiatric disturbances, and sensory deficits, have also been reported in Parkinson’s patients at both the early and late stages of the disease.

Increasing evidence suggests that these non-motor symptoms can precede the onset of Parkinson’s motor manifestations and have a significant impact on patients’ quality of life.

Studies addressing the prevalence and nature of Parkinson’s non-motor symptoms have been widely discussed in the general Parkinson’s population, mainly in patients receiving anti-parkinsonian therapy. However, the presence of non-motor symptoms may be confounded by the fact that many of these symptoms arise as part of therapy-related side effects.

In this study, a team of researchers evaluated the prevalence of non-motor symptoms in 569 Chinese patients with Parkinson’s disease who had not yet been treated with any approved therapy.

“Untreated PD [Parkinson’s disease] patients represent a suitable model, which is good for exploring the clinical expression of NMS [non-motor symptoms] as well as motor symptoms,” the researchers wrote.

The team wanted to explore the gender and onset age-related non-motor symptom profiles and investigate the determinants of quality of life in these patients.

Participants were between the ages of 45 and 70 and had a mean disease duration of two years. Approximately 51.7% were women, 18.6% had early-onset disease, and overall patients showed bilateral disease without impairment of balance, as determined by a score of 1.9 on the modified Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) staging scale.

The mean score on the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III), which assesses the motor signs of Parkinson’s disease, was 21.7, with men exhibiting significantly higher (worse) scores than females.

A total of 552 patients had at least one Parkinson’s non-motor symptom, with 74% reporting sleep disorder or fatigue and 62.7% attention or memory impairments. The rarest manifestation was perceptual problems or hallucinations, which affected 3.7% of patients.

Men showed a higher incidence of urinary and sexual dysfunction, and a significantly lower incidence of sleep issues or fatigue, mood changes or apathy, and attention or memory impairments than women.

The team also found that patients with late-onset disease had a significantly higher incidence of perceptual problems or hallucinations, attention or memory deficits, as well as gastrointestinal, urinary, and sexual dysfunctions than early-onset Parkinson’s patients.

Overall, patients who were depressed and those who had worse non-motor symptoms, in particular sleep problems or fatigue, mood alterations or apathy, attention or memory impairments, or gastrointestinal symptoms, were found to have a poorer quality of life.

“Our study suggests that NMS is common in drug-naïve PD patients,” the researchers wrote.

“NMS, especially sleep/ fatigue, mood/apathy, attention/memory, and gastrointestinal symptoms, are dramatic determinants on decreased QoL [quality of life] in PD patients,” they added. “Management of non-motor symptoms is of great importance to improve the quality of life of early stage Parkinson’s disease patients.”

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Deep Fatigue Is More than Tiredness

deep fatigue

Fatigue is a symptom commonly associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and one I experience more often each year. The term “fatigue” alone does not do justice to the experience. It is too easy to relate fatigue to being tired or overworked, or to muscle aches after hard physical labor. I have had those experiences and none of them compare to PD-related fatigue. I’ve needed a new way to define this different level of fatigue. Thus, I have adopted the term “deep fatigue.”

Deep fatigue is different in its intensity and its incorporation of nonmotor symptoms. Deep fatigue involves every muscle, sometimes even involuntary ones. They are all tired and weak, and in my case, also in pain. If I have been exercising, then those muscles groups will have a higher level of pain. In deep fatigue, it is common for me to have pain levels at six or seven. (I associate level seven with spontaneous tears.) At the same time, emotions become much more intense, almost overwhelming, and difficult to manage. Mental energy is used to manage the pain and the emotions, leaving little energy for anything else.

My duration of deep fatigue is slowly increasing each year. Presently, my deep fatigue lasts between one to six hours. It’s like dragging a ball and chain during those hours.

These things seem to make deep fatigue worse:

  • Exercising too hard or too long
  • Eating too much animal protein, or too big a meal
  • Not resting when needed
  • Getting overheated and not hydrating
  • Being overly stressed
  • Being sick with a virus
  • Missing a levodopa dose

Obviously, avoiding the above is part of my rehab plan for dealing with deep fatigue. Rest and sleep are VERY important.

I am a very active person, but deep fatigue must be addressed with rest. Taking a day to rest is not in my nature. It makes me feel like a sloth. Yet, when deep fatigue hits me, the best remedy is to do just that — take the day off! I limit myself to one day of physical rest, very rarely two days (usually following some stressful event). I also find that the mind must rest with the body. Getting the mind to a quiet place is the practice of meditation, in whatever form suits the moment. At the height of deep fatigue, meditation can be very difficult, but not impossible. At times, it has taken me four hours to quiet my mind and body to get rejuvenating rest.

(Graphic by Dr. C)

But there is a caution here: Be wary of using rest as an excuse to procrastinate. In another column, I’ll address the link of scenario looping to set-shifting issues and difficulty initiating new tasks. Basically, getting off the sofa can be problematic if I stay there too long. Perhaps this seems contradictory to my history as a highly active person, but that is the nature of PD’s nonmotor effects. Once off the sofa, I make myself shift into a physical task, followed by a short rest and then some type of mental task. There is always some resistance to overcome to do this — to get off the sofa — but the rest is absolutely necessary to stop the deep fatigue.

***

Note: Parkinson’s News Today is strictly a news and information website about the disease. It does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or another qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website. The opinions expressed in this column are not those of Parkinson’s News Today or its parent company, BioNews Services, and are intended to spark discussion about issues pertaining to Parkinson’s disease.

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Biomarkers Associated with Extreme Exhaustion in Cancer Also Linked to Fatigue in Parkinson’s, Study Says

fatigue biomarkers

Biomarkers responsible for extreme exhaustion in cancer patients are also associated with fatigue in Parkinson’s disease, a study reveals.

The study, “Inflammation and fatigue in early, untreated Parkinson’s Disease,” was published in the journal Acta Neurologica Scandinavia.

Fatigue is one of the most common and disabling symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. According to studies, approximately 50 percent of patients develop clinically relevant fatigue, which is also associated with a lower quality of life.

“The No. 1 complaint among Parkinson’s disease sufferers is chronic fatigue,” Chris Fagundes, PhD, an assistant professor of psychology at Rice University and one of the study’s lead authors, said in a press release.

Studies have shown that a key mechanism behind fatigue is the activation of the inflammatory cytokine network — which consists of small molecules involved in immune responses called cytokines. These molecules work to promote inflammation.

High levels of inflammation can trigger the central nervous system to induce “sickness behaviors” — causing patients to suffer from fatigue. Neuro-inflammation — inflammation of the central nervous system — has been implicated in Parkinson’s disease.

Rice University researchers recruited 47 patients with newly diagnosed, untreated Parkinson’s with either high or low fatigue, according to the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Of these patients, 23 had low fatigue, defined by FSS scores of less than or equal to 3, and 24 had high fatigue, with FSS scores greater than 5.5. Patients were then evaluated for a panel of 13 neuro-inflammatory markers.

Parkinson’s patients who experienced high fatigue had significantly higher levels of the inflammatory markers IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1-Ra) and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 than patients who didn’t have fatigue.

“These findings highlight an altered immune response as a potential contributor to PD-related fatigue, from the earliest clinical stages of the disease,” the researchers wrote in the study.

High levels of both IL1-Ra and VCAM-1 were independently associated with disease severity, depression, cognition, and sleepiness. This suggests that these two biomarkers not only play a role in fatigue but also likely contribute to other Parkinson’s symptoms.

Because the mechanisms of cytokine-related fatigue are also prevalent in many cancers, similar biological mechanisms could be targeted across both diseases.

“This discovery may help health professionals to develop treatments that target the biological mechanisms underlying fatigue,” Fagundes said. “By targeting the biological mechanism rather than simply teaching patients how to cope with the symptoms, we could potentially alleviate fatigue in these patients.”

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Source: Parkinson's News Today

One-item Scale Is Reliable Tool to Assess Fatigue in Parkinson’s Patients, Study Finds

Fatigue Visual Analog Scale a reliable tool

The one-item Fatigue Visual Analog Scale (VAFS) is a highly consistent and reliable tool to assess fatigue in patients with Parkinson’s disease, and is associated with their quality of life, according to researchers.

Their study, “The dimensionality of fatigue in Parkinson’s disease,” was published in the Journal of Translational Medicine.

Fatigue is one of the most common, but often under-recognized, symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, affecting 30-70 percent of patients. About one-third of Parkinson’s patients consider fatigue the single most bothersome symptom, even more than the disease-associated motor symptoms.

Fatigue in Parkinson’s tend to develop early in the disease, and it significantly affects patients’ quality of life. Fatigue can be defined as an overwhelming sense of tiredness and lack of energy, making the performance of routine activities, physical or mental, a strain.

However, a universally accepted definition and classification is still missing, creating large challenges to its measurements.

Recently, the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society (MDS) — a society of clinicians, researchers, and other healthcare professionals who specialize in Parkinson’s disease — evaluated nine of the most commonly used scales to assess fatigue in Parkinson’s patients based on their ease of use, but none was considered to be a “highly recommended” tool for that purpose.

In the current study, researchers evaluated four of those scales to determine whether they could be reliable tools to assess fatigue in these patients, and whether their scores could be linked to fatigue’s negative impact on patients’ quality of life.

The study involved 22 Parkinson’s patients (15 men and seven women; mean age of 69), and 15 age-matched individuals (two men and 13 women; mean age of 63), who were, in most cases, the spouses or caregivers of the Parkinson’s patients.

All participants completed four scales: the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue Scale (FACIT-F), the Parkinson Fatigue Scale (PFS), and the Fatigue Visual Analog Scale (VAFS).

Parkinson’s patients were also asked to list their top three most bothersome Parkinson’s symptoms, and to complete 13 quality of life-related measures, including cognition, sleep, depression, life orientation, physical activity, and Parkinson’s symptoms.

The scores from the four scales showed that Parkinson’s patients experienced much more fatigue than their spouses/caregivers. Many of the patients had excessive and unusual fatigue, and six (27 percent) included fatigue in their top three most bothersome symptoms.

The results of the Fatigue Severity Scale, Parkinson Fatigue Scale, and Visual Analogue Fatigue Scale were highly consistent, and could predict with elevated certainty if the results were from Parkinson’s patients or from spouses/caregivers.

Among them, the Visual Analogue Fatigue Scale was the most reliable tool, and patients who rated their fatigue as lower than 5.5 (when lower values indicated more fatigue) were found to be three times more likely to have excessive fatigue.

“Although lengthy questionnaires that are specific and detailed may serve their purposes, it appears that a simple question asking subjects how they feel overall (such as fatigue or pain) succinctly captures the status of their well-being,” the researchers wrote.

They also found that while fatigue scores were associated with changes in many of the quality of life-related measures analyzed, the 39-item Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) showed the strongest association.

The PDQ-39 is a tool that includes eight disease dimensions: mobility, activities of daily living, emotional well-being, stigma, social support, cognition, communication, and bodily discomfort.

“The potential utility of a single measure such as the VAFS in [Parkinson’s] that is reliably correlated with quality of life is consistent with the pursuit to develop clinical tests and measurements that are accessible, easy to use, and universally interpretable across health science disciplines,” they concluded.

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Source: Parkinson's News Today

10 Complications of Parkinson’s Disease

As well as the symptoms usually associated with Parkinson’s disease like rigidity and tremors, those living with the condition may also experience other complications. According to the Mayo Clinic, these complications may include:

Cognitive Problems
Cognitive problems tend to occur in the later stages of the disease, where thinking and reasoning may become impaired. Currently, there is no medication available to treat this complication.

Depression and Anxiety
It’s common for people living with Parkinson’s disease to suffer from emotional changes such as depression or anxiety. Speak to your doctor if you’re finding it hard to cope emotionally as medication or counseling may help.

Difficulty in Swallowing
As Parkinson’s disease progresses, some patients may find they experience swallowing difficulties. This may also lead to an excess of saliva in the mouth and drooling.

MORE: 11 Facts About Parkinson’s Disease You May Not Know

Sleep Disorders
Sleep disorders are extremely common in people with Parkinson’s disease. Common complaints include difficulty falling asleep, waking to go to the bathroom, restless leg syndrome, REM sleep behavior disorder and sleep apnea.

Bladder and Bowel Problems
Difficulty in controlling urination or starting urination is a common complication of Parkinson’s disease. In addition, many may find that they suffer from constipation.

Sudden Changes in Blood Pressure
Dizziness when standing up is due to a sudden drop in blood pressure.

MORE: Lifestyle Changes That Can Improve Quality of Life for Parkinson’s Patients

Loss of Sense of Smell
Many Parkinson’s disease patients report a decline in their sense of smell or being unable to distinguish between different smells.

Fatigue
Fatigue can affect many Parkinson’s disease patients, often without any known cause.

Pain
Pain experienced by Parkinson’s disease patients can be in specific areas or a general pain felt all over the body.

Lower Sex Drive
A lower sex drive or sexual dysfunction is a complication of Parkinson’s disease for many people and may be due to other symptoms such as fatigue, pain or depression.

MORE: 10 Complications of Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s News Today is strictly a news and information website about the disease. It does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or another qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.

The post 10 Complications of Parkinson’s Disease appeared first on Parkinson’s News Today.

Source: Parkinson's News Today